• Film and Music

    Film and music became key artistic expressions to counter the social and cultural patterns imposed by Francoism.  

  • Video Interview

    Women Pop Artists in the Collection

    This video was recorded on 4 February 2020 in the rooms and Auditorium 200 of Museo Reina Sofía. It gathers interviews and a conversation between a number of women artists who started their practices in the late 1960s and early 1970s, a time in which feminist protests were being reactivated.

  • Women Pop Artists in the Collection

    In recent years, one of the Museo Reina Sofía's primary goals has been to augment its holdings with works by women artists, thereby addressing the gaps that exist in the Collection.

  • Pop Art and Political Geography

    Spain’s Context

    Beyond the often quoted British and North American oeuvre, Pop Art was a movement of a global nature that took on particular features in correspondence with the specificities of the political areas in which it was produced.

  • Emancipation Under Guardianship

    After the Civil War, Spanish women underwent a “return to order”. All were subjected to gender-based reprisals, regardless of ideology.

  • Stereotypes of Women

    Spain in the 1960s and 1970s

    By dint of laws, regulations, education models and the Sección Femenina — the Women’s Section — Francoism drove a demure and obedient female stereotype, banishing women from the public sphere and returning them to their only authorised spaces: home and family.

  • Free Women and AMA


    Mujeres Libres, or Free Women, was an organisation founded in 1936, largely by anarchist women workers who defended anti-fascism and social revolution. The Association of Anti-fascist Women (AMA) was the largest women’s organisation during the Civil War, with members estimated to total around 65,000.

  • The Image of the Republican Woman


    Within the substantial number of Republican war posters, our focus is the construction of the image of women, in which new prototypes emerging from the revolution are seamlessly juxtaposed with images perpetuating inherited roles.

  • Women and Politics


    The successive governments that occupied power from 1931 until the end of the Civil War adopted reformist measures that materialised in laws attempting to advance towards equality for women and recognise their rights in political, civil and social regulations.

  • Women During the Second Republic


    The years presided over by the government of the Second Republic (1931–1936) were key to advances in the process of women’s emancipation that was already under way but ultimately cut short by the National faction’s victory.